CREOLE CRITICISM – A CRITIQUE

NOTES

  1. Ramchand in Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 16. No .2. p. 63
  2. THE ISLANDS IN BETWEEN. Essays on West Indian Literature. Ed. by Louis James, Oxford University Preu,1968
  3. F. R. Leavis. Anna Karenina and other Essays. Chatto and Windus, 1967 p. 179
  4. A paraphrase of Leavis by the writer of the Review Article • THE CRITIC AS MAN• · in Times Literary Supplement, November, 30th, 1967.
  5. C. 0. V. 16 No . 2, pp 58-59
  6. Quoted on p. 164 of The West Indian Novel etc.

7          F. A. THE COMMON PURSUIT. Penguin Books, p. 1962 . p. 200.

8       The Wen Indian Novel etc. p. I 3

9         Ibid., p . 14

10       Rex M . Nettleford, MIRROR. MIRROR, ldentity. Race and Protest in Jamaica. Collins Sangster (Jamaica Ltd. 1970 p, 190.

11        Ramchand, The West lndian Novel etc ., p. xi.

12        Susan Sontagg, in an Essay. Contrainterpretacion, in Mundo Nuevo, Jan. 1967. No.7 p.

13        Caribbean Quarterly. p 55.

14.      Ibid., P- 59

15 .      Ibid ., p. 56

16     In Encounter, August 1969, p. 19.

17      The West Indian Novel etc. p. 23.

18        lbid ., p_ 24.

19        F. R. Leavis, The Common Pursuit, P. 192.

20       Ibid., p 190 .

21        Quoted by Leavis. ,bid ., p. 191 .

22        Sharp, quoted by Leavis, 1b1d., p. 191.

23      In BIM, Volume 12, No. 45, i Part II of an article, Jazz And the West Indian Novel, p. 39.

24     The Pleasures of Exile (1960 pp. 38·9 quoted by Ramchand on p.4 of THE WEST INDIAN NOVEL etc.

25        At a meeting of the New World Group m 1969

26       In The Middle Passage 119621 p. 68, quoted by Ramchand m The Wes1 Indian Novel etc. p. 4

27        Ramchand, The West Indian Novel etc., p. 5

28      Ibid., p. 5.

29      Ibid., p. 5

30      Ibid., p. 5

31       Ibid., p. 5

32      Ibid ., p. 6

33     Ibid ., p. 6. A certain susceptibility of the imagination, of the ear, leads Dr. Ramchand to imitate some of the more unfortunate aspects of the prose style of his approved authors. This sentence reads like Hearne at his worst. On p. 12, in speaking of Harris ‘THE WAITING ROOM. we get two sentence, of an insurpassable mystified illiteracy . They are:

“Such a distribution of strengths and weaknesses between animate and inanimate objects in the room allows for a relayed digestion of the whole catastrophe while offering mutual protection from its annihilating powers.”

And again ..

” .. Harris’s exploration of this condition in the person has gone so far that the personal relationship­ violent rape, irresponsible lover, involuntarily responsive mistress learning to digest catastrophe – absorbs the burden of an equally rapacious imperial relationship.” (p. 12).

34     Ibid., p. 9

35     Ibid., p. 9

36     Ibid., p. 118

37        Ibid., pp 13-14

38        Ibid. p. 13

39     A South African term for a ‘native’ drink made 1n the shanty towns of Johennesburg from methyl alcohol, calcium carbide, treacle, tobacco and so on. Janheinz Jahn writes in Muntu, that the Soers’ police prescription of African beer, led to this substitute, the ‘legitimate offspring of African slums and European moral principles’. Janhenz Jahn goes on to attack Malinowski who saw the revival of African traditions as ‘an unhealthy and sophisticated nationalism, a product of psychological retreat before European pressure, ‘modem · mythmaking’ a drug, that it ‘Skokian’.

40     Cactus Village. p. 8 quoted on p. 118 of THE WEST INDIAN NOVEL e tc.

41     Cactus Village, p. 9. quoted in The West Indian Novel etc . p. 119 .

42     The West Indian Novel etc. p. 119

43     In Muntu,; An outline of Neo -Africa n culture. (19581 pp. 17-18 , quoted by Ramchand in The West Indian Novel etc . p. 117

44 .      Ibid.

45     Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, pp. 171·2

46     Ramchand in THE WEST INDIAN NOVEL etc. p. 117

47     Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, p. 179.

48     Ramchand, The West Indian Novel. etc. p. 117

49     Ibid., p. 117

50     Had Ramchand been not so concerned to negate the general theory of a Nao-African approach; and more concerned to actually examine Brathwaithe’s application of his jazz theory to the sound patterns of Brother Man, a case could be made out for the need of a closer, more precise exploration of the way m which the spoken language infiltration and sounds through the prose of Brother Man . Brathwaite can be faulted for a lack of precision: but his general theory about the ‘community’ expressed in terms paralleling jazz improvisation and the contrast with the novel of the Faustian individual experience; the positing of an alternative indigenous cultural tradition cannot be refuted. It is this indigenous alternative cultural tradition that Ramchand is at pains to deny .

51     The West Indian Novel, etc. p. 14.

52     By Joseph Jones. New York, 1965.

53     The West Indian Novel etc . p. 8 1 .

54     Ibid., p. 82.

55     Ibid., p. 177.

56     Ibid., p. 177.

57     Ibid., p. 178.

58     Ibid., p 178.

59     Ibid., p 178.

60     lbid., p.118.

61     Ibid., P. 118 .

62     Ibid., p. 123.

63     Claude Levi Strauss. THE SAVAGE MINO, p. (19661 p. 269 ,

64     The West Indian Novel etc. p. 121.

65     Ibid., p. 120.