What holds up the taking of a decision by the profoundly democratic elements of the young nation and adds to their timidity is the apparent strength of the bourgeoisie. In newly independent under­developed countries, the whole of the ruling class swarms into the towns built by colonialism. The absence of any analysis of the total population inducer, onlookers to think that there exists a powerful and perfectly organised bourgeoisie. In fact, we know to­day that the bourgeoisie in under-developed countries is non-existent. What creates a bourgeoisie is not the bourgeois spirit, not its taste or manners, nor even its aspirations. The bourgeoisie is above all the direct product of precise economic conditions.

Now in the colonies, the economic conditions are conditions of a foreign bourgeoisie. Through its agents, it is the bourgeoisie of the mother coun­try that we find present in the colonial towns. The bourgeoisie in the colonies is, before independence, a Western bourgeoisie, a true branch of the bourge­oisie of the mother country, that derives its legitimacy … its force and its stability from the bourgeoisie of the homeland. During the period of unrest that precedes independence, certain native elements, intellec­tuals and traders, who live in the midst of that im­ported bourgeoisie, try to identify themselves with it. A permanent wish for identification with the bourgeois representatives of the mother country is to be found among the native intellectuals and merchants.

This native bourgeoisie, which has adopted un­reservedly and with enthusiasm the ways and think­ing characteristic of the mother country, which has become wonderfully detached from its own thought and has based its consciousness upon foundations which are typically foreign, will realise, with its mouth water­ing, that it lacks something essential to a bourgeoisie: money. The bourgeoisie of an underdeveloped country is a bourgeoisie in spirit only. It is not its economic strength, nor the dynamism of its leaders nor the breadth of its ideas that ensures its peculiar quality of bourgeoisie. Consequently, it remains at the beginning and for a long time afterwards, a bourgeoisie of the civil service. It is the positions that it holds in the new national administration which will give it strength and serenity. If the government gives it enough time and opportunity, this bourgeoisie will manage to put away enough money to stiffen its domination. But it will always reveal itself as in­capable of giving birth to an authentic bourgeois society with all the economic and industrial con­sequences which this entails.

From the beginning the national bourgeoisie directs its efforts towards activities of the intermediary type. The basis of its strength is found in its aptitude for trade and small business enterprises, and in securing commissions. It is not its money that works, but its business acumen. It does not go in for invest­ments and it cannot achieve that accumulation of capital necessary to the birth and blossoming of an authentic bourgeoisie. At that rate, it would take centuries to set on foot an embryonic industrial revolution, and in any case, it would find the way barred by the relentless opposition of the former mother country, which will have taken all precautions when setting up neo-colonialist trade conventions.

If the government wants to bring the country out of its stagnation and set it well on the road towards development and progress, it must first and foremost nationalise the middleman’s trading sector. The bourgeoisie, who wish to see both the triumph of the spirit of money-making and the enjoyment of consumer goods, and at the same time, the triumph of their con­temptuous attitude towards the mass of the people and the scandalous aspect of profit-making (should we not rather call it robbery?), in fact invest largely in this sector. The intermediary market which formerly was dominated by the settlers will be invaded by the young national bourgeoisie. In a colonial economy, the in­termediary sector is by far the most important. If you want to progress, you must decide in the first few hours to nationalise this sector. But it is clear that such a nationalisation ought not to take on a rigidly state-controlled aspect. It is not a question of placing at the head of these services, citizens, who have had no political education, Every time such a procedure has been adopted, it has been seen that the government has in fact contributed to the triumph of a dictator­ship of civil servants who had been set in the mould of the former mother country, and who quickly showed themselves incapable of thinking in terms of the nation as a whole. These civil servants very soon began to sabotage the national economy and to throw its structure out of joint. Under them, corruption, prevari­cation, the diversion of stocks and the black market came to stay. Nationalising the intermediary sector means organising wholesale and retail co-operatives on a democratic basis. It also means decentralising these co-operatives by getting the mass of the people interested in the ordering of public affairs. You will not be able to do all this unless you give the people some political education.

Previously, it was realised that this key problem should be clarified once and for all. Today, it is true that the principle of the political education of the masses is generally subscribed to in underdeveloped countries. But it does not seem that this primordial task is really taken to heart. When people stress the need to educate the people politically, they decide to point out at the same time, that they want to be supported by the people in the action that they are taking. A government which declares that it wishes to educate the people politically thus expresses its desire to govern with the people and for the people. It ought not to speak a language destined to camou­flage a bourgeois administration. In the capitalist countries, the bourgeois governments have long since left this infantile stage of authority behind. To put it bluntly, they govern with the help of their laws, their economic strength and their police. Now that their power is firmly established they no longer need to lose time in striking demagogic attitudes. They govern in their own interests, and they have the courage of their own strength. They have created legitimacy and they are strong in their own right.

The bourgeois caste in newly independent countries have not yet the cynicism nor the unruffled calm which are founded on the strength of long- established bourgeoisies. From this springs the fact that they show a certain anxiety to hide their real convictions, to side-track, and in short to set themselves up as a popular force. But the inclusion of the masses in politics does not consist in mobilising three or four times a year ten thousand or a hundred thousand men and women. These meetings and spectacular gather­ings are akin to the old tactics that date from before independence, whereby you exhibited your forces in order to prove to yourself and to others that you had the people behind you. The political education of the masses proposes not to treat the masses as children but to make adults of them.